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The Four Noble Truths

चत्वारि आर्यसत्यानि (catvāri āryasatyāni) : The Four Noble Truths : 四聖諦
  1. दुःखम् (duḥkham): Suffering : 苦

    • All existence is suffering.

    • “This is the noble truth of suffering: birth is suffering, aging is suffering, illness is suffering, death is suffering; sorrow, lamentation, pain, grief and despair are suffering; union with what is displeasing is suffering; separation from what is pleasing is suffering; not to get what one wants is suffering; in brief, the five aggregates subject to clinging are suffering.”

  2. (दुःख) समुदयः ([duḥkha] samudayaḥ) : Origin (of Suffering) : 集

    • All suffering is caused by desire/craving/clinging.

    • “This is the noble truth of the origin of suffering: it is this craving which leads to renewed existence, accompanied by delight and lust, seeking delight here and there, that is, craving for sensual pleasures, craving for existence, craving for extermination.”

  3. (दुःख) निरोधः ([duḥkha] nirodhaḥ) : Cessation (of Suffering) : 滅

    • All Suffering can be ended by ending desire.

    • “This is the noble truth of the cessation of suffering: it is the remainderless fading away and cessation of that same craving, the giving up and relinquishing of it, freedom from it, nonreliance on it.”

  4. (दुःखनिरोधः) मार्गः (duḥkhanirodhaḥ] mārgaḥ) : Path (to the Cessation of Suffering) : 道

    • Desire can be ended by following the Noble Eightfold Path.

    • “This is the noble truth of the way leading to the cessation of suffering: it is the Noble Eightfold Path; that is, right view, right intention, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness and right concentration.”